The Mining Association of Canada | The Canadian Mining Story: Economic Impacts and Drivers for the Global Energy Transition 2023 14 Canada’s strength in mining rests on its ability to produce and process minerals competitively and to transport products efficiently to and from domestic and international markets. These production, processing and transportation activities form the base that allows the industry to stay globally competitive and expand its Canadian investments. MINERAL PRODUCTION Canada is among the top producers of metals and non-metallic minerals in the world. It is the top producer of potash, second largest producer of gemstones and niobium, and third largest producer of precious diamonds, indium and palladium (by metal content). Canada produces 60 minerals and metals and is among the top ten producers in the world for 26 of them. These materials are mined in either open pit or underground mines. The mined products are often transferred to concentrators, where the mined ore is converted to usable raw material through crushing and concentrating. SECTION 2 The Activities: Production, Processing and Transportation Figure 1: Canada’s High-Ranking Mineral Products7 Mineral 1 2 3 4 5 Potash Canada Russia Belarus China Germany Gemstones Russia Canada Botswana Angola South Africa Niobium Brazil Canada Diamonds (precious) Russia Botswana Canada Congo South Africa Indium China South Korea Canada Japan France Palladium (metal content) South Africa Russia Canada United States Zimbabwe 7 From United States Geological Survey annual Mineral Commodities Summaries for each mineral available at the National Minerals Information Centre using 2021 data.