The Mining Association of Canada | The Canadian Mining Story: Economic Impacts and Drivers for the Global Energy Transition 2023 17 The quantity and value of refined metal production in Canada has become irregular due to the depletion of reserves and greater dependence on imported concentrates. Figure 5 shows the production volumes for refined metals since 2005, setting the baseline production for each metal in 2005 to be 100. Of the seven metals assessed, only cobalt, cadmium and aluminum were produced at levels higher than 2005 in their most recent year. Figure 6 shows the actual difference in production volumes for 2005 and the most recent measurement year. TRANSPORTATION Mines and production facilities are often far from the manufacturers and consumers that will use what they produce. Mining products are bulky, heavy and must travel long distances over inhospitable terrain. Some mines are far outside Canada’s main transportation networks and require transportation of goods by air, water or temporary ice roads. As a result, Canada’s logistics supply chain is critical to the flow of mined and refined products to both domestic and international markets. Canada’s strength in mining rests on its ability to produce and process minerals competitively and to transport products efficiently to and from domestic and international markets. The mining industry is the largest industrial customer group of Canada’s transportation sector and a major user of Canada’s ports. Mining companies require a reliable transportation network to compete internationally. This is especially true for Canada, the world’s second largest country by land mass. Rail, truck and marine shipping are all important means of transportation for the industry. Rail Canada’s mining industry is a heavy user of rail. Freight rail moves heavy, bulk commodities over long distances, which makes it a good match for mines and production Figure 6: Refined Metal Production, Select Metals12 2005 Most Recent Most Recent Measurement Year Tonnes Aluminum 2,894,204 3,157,762 2021 Cadmium 1,727 1,803 2019 Cobalt 4,618 5,965 2020 Copper 515,223 291,250 2018 Lead 230,237 147,358 2019 Nickel 139,683 124,043 2020 Zinc 724,035 640,718 2021 12 Data since 2020 from Statistics Canada, Production and shipments of metallic minerals, monthly, table 16-100019-01, previous years from Natural Resources Canada. Data for 2021 is preliminary.