The Mining Association of Canada | The Canadian Mining Story: Economic Impacts and Drivers for the Global Energy Transition 2023 2 The infrastructure deficit in Canada’s North makes it one of the most expensive places to mine in the world. Investments in power, communications and transportation by all levels of government will help to connect the North to the rest of Canada, and allow for the responsible development of mineral resources there. Canada produces more than 60 minerals and metals through its mining activities. The total value of Canadian mineral production in 2021 was $55.5 billion, up 20% on the year before. The total value has tripled since 2002. In addition to extracting minerals from the ground, Canadian mining companies also process minerals by smelting and refining. As the industry changes, the quantity and value of refined metal production in Canada has become irregular due to the depletion of reserves and greater dependence on imported concentrates. Canadian refined metals production has actually declined since 2005 for key metals like nickel, zinc, lead and copper. Transportation costs have risen substantially for the mining industry in recent years: rail and road transportation costs have both increased by 50% in the past five years, with the majority of the increase happening since the end of 2020. Canada must support mineral production by building infrastructure – transportation, energy and communications. New infrastructure will help Canada’s extraction, processing and manufacturing industries by providing the resources that the industry needs, reliably and at a reasonable cost. Because of the weight and volume of mined materials, many of them are transported by rail. This makes regulation of Canada’s rail duopoly a priority topic for Canada’s mining companies. The Canadian economy broadly would benefit from a robust transportation data regime. The people of mining are diverse: they come from all corners of the country and all educational backgrounds. In 2021, the industry directly employed 403,000 people and indirectly employed an additional 263,000. This represents one in 31 people in the Canadian labour force. The minerals industry is an important employer of Indigenous peoples, providing jobs to 11,300 people in 2020. The mining industry is justifiably proud of its safety record. Rates of injury have declined substantially since 2011. The mining industry supports a successful, safe, high-paid, technically adept workforce. Through continued efforts, particularly in enhancing equity, diversity and inclusion in the sector, it will be possible to enhance the industry’s track record of success at hiring, training and retaining these skilled workers through the next generation.