The Mining Association of Canada | The Canadian Mining Story: Economic Impacts and Drivers for the Global Energy Transition 2023 40 The mining industry has proven an effective vehicle not just for Indigenous employment, but also for skills training and upward mobility. For example, Indigenous people in the mining workforce are increasingly pursuing formal education credentials. According to 2019 MiHR research in 2006, 30% had no certificate, diploma or degree; by 2016, that rate fell to 22%. From 2006 to 2016, the share of Indigenous people in the mining workforce with a college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma rose by three percentage points, as did the rate for those with a university certificate, diploma or degree at bachelor level or above. Potential for increased Indigenous employment remains strong. More than 200 producing mines and thousands of exploration properties are located within 200 km of Indigenous communities. Many mines and projects are located on traditional lands. New Canadians and Visible Minorities In 2016, immigrants and visible minorities in Canada each made up a fifth of the country’s population. Statistics Canada projects that the immigrant share of Canada’s population could reach between 25% and 30% by 2036; Canada’s visible minority population is expected to be even higher, between 31% and 38%. According to MiHR research, in 2016, the representation of immigrants (13%) and visible minorities (9%) in the mining workforce were both below the levels of all industries (23% and 21% respectively). These shares, however, have been slowly increasing since 2006 (see Figure 7). Wages The Canadian mining industry boasts the highest wages and salaries of all industrial sectors in Canada (see Annex 7). The average annual pay for a mining worker in 2021 was more than $130,000, which surpassed the average annual earnings of workers in forestry, manufacturing, finance and construction. The average annual pay for a worker in mining, smelting and refining was more than $60,000 more than the average for all jobs in Canada. This gap has been relatively consistent since 2009, as shown in Figure 8. Diversity Status 2006 2011 2016 Immigrant 12% 14% 13% Visible Minority 7% 9% 9% Figure 7: Representation of New Canadians and Visible Minorities in the Mining Workforce, 2006-201631 31 MiHR, Statistics Canada (2006 Census, 2011 National Household Survey, 2016 Census).